Michael Whitlock - Publications

whitlock@zoology.ubc.ca - back to home page

BOOKS:

Whitlock, M. C., and D. Schluter. 2009. The Analysis of Biological Data. Roberts & Co. Publishers, Greenwood Village, CO. 700pp.

Losos, J., D. Baum, D. Futuyma, H. Hoekstra, R. Lenski, A. Moore, C. L. Peichel, D. Schluter, and M. C. Whitlock (Eds.)  2013. The Princeton Guide to Evolution. Princeton University Press; Princeton.

PUBLICATIONS:

Whitlock, M. C., and D. E. McCauley.  1990.  Some population genetic consequences of colony formation and extinction: Genetic correlations within founding groups.  Evolution 44:1717-1724.

Whitlock, M. C.  1992.  Nonequilibrium population structure in forked fungus beetles: Extinction, colonization, and the genetic variance among populations. The American Naturalist  139:952-970.

Whitlock, M. C. 1992.  Temporal fluctuations in demographic parameters and the genetic variance among populations. Evolution 46:608-615.

Whitlock, M.  1993.  Lack of correlation between heterozygosity and fitness in forked fungus beetles.  Heredity 70:574-581.

Whitlock, M. C.,  P. C. Phillips, and M. J. Wade.  1993.  Gene interaction affects the additive genetic variance in subdivided populations with migration and extinction. Evolution 47:1758-1769.

Whitlock, M. C.  1994.  Fission and the genetic variance among populations: the changing demography of forked fungus beetle populations. The American Naturalist 143:820-829.

Fowler, K., and M. C. Whitlock.  1994.  Fluctuating asymmetry does not increase with moderate inbreeding in Drosophila melanogaster.  Heredity 73:373-376.

Whitlock, M. C., and M. J. Wade.  1995. Speciation:  Founder events and their effects on X-linked and autosomal genes. The American Naturalist  145:676-685.

Whitlock, M. C.  1995.  Variance Induced Peak Shifts.  Evolution 49:252-259.

Whitlock, M. C.  1995.  Two-locus drift with sex chromosomes:  The partitioning and conversion of variance in subdivided populations.  Theoretical Population Biology 48:44-64.

Whitlock, M. C., P. C. Phillips, F. B. G. Moore, and S. Tonsor.  1995.  Multiple Fitness Peaks and Epistasis.  Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics  26:601-29.

Whitlock, M. C.  1996.  The Red Queen versus the Jack-of-All-Trades: Evolutionary rates and the evolution of specialization. The American Naturalist 148:S65-S77.

Whitlock, M. C., and K. Fowler. 1996.  The variance among populations in phenotypic variance with inbreeding. Evolution 50:1919-1926.

Whitlock, M. 1996.  The heritability of fluctuating asymmetry and the genetic control of developmental stability. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B 263:849-853.

Barton, N. H., and M. C. Whitlock. 1997.  The evolution of metapopulations.  pp. 183-210 in I. Hanski and M. Gilpin, eds., Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution.  Academic Press.

Whitlock, M. C., and K. Fowler.  1997.  The instability of studies of instability.  Journal of Evolutionary Biology 10:63-67.

Whitlock, M. C., and N. H. Barton.  1997.  The effective size of a subdivided population. Genetics 146:427-441.

Otto, S. P., and M. C. Whitlock.  1997.  Fixation of beneficial mutations in a population of changing size. Genetics 146:723-733.

Whitlock, M. C.  1997.  Founder effects and peak shifts without genetic drift: Adaptive peak shifts occur easily when environments fluctuate slightly. Evolution 51:1044-1048.

Whitlock, M. 1998. The repeatability of fluctuating asymmetry: A revision and extension. The Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B. 265:1429-1431.

Rundle, H. D., A. Ø. Mooers, and M. C. Whitlock. 1998. Single founder-flush events and the evolution of reproductive isolation. Evolution 52: 1850-1855.

Whitlock, M. C., and D. E. McCauley. 1999.  Indirect measures of gene flow and migration: FST doesn’t equal 1/(4Nm+1). Heredity 82: 117-125.

Whitlock, M. C., and K. Fowler. 1999. The changes in genetic and environmental variance with inbreeding in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 152:345-353.

Mooers, A. Ø., H. D. Rundle, and M. C. Whitlock.  1999. The effects of selection and bottlenecks on male mating success in peripheral isolates. American Naturalist 153: 437-444.

Fowler, K., and M. C. Whitlock. 1999. The distribution of phenotypic variance with inbreeding. Evolution 53:83-96.

Whitlock, M. C., and P. C. Phillips. 1999. Genetic Drift. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, in press.

Rundle, H. D., A. Ø. Mooers, and M. C. Whitlock. 1999. Experimental tests of founder-flush: A reply to Templeton. Evolution 53:1632-1633.

Whitlock, M. C. and S. P. Otto. 1999. The panda and the phage: Compensatory mutations and the persistence of small populations. Trends in Evolution and Ecology 14:293-294.

Fowler, K., and M. C. Whitlock. 1999. The variance in inbreeding depression and the recovery of fitness in bottlenecked populations. The Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B, 266:2061-2066.

Whitlock, M. C. 1999. Neutral additive genetic variance in a metapopulation. Genetical Research 74:215-221.

Phillips, P. C. , S. P. Otto, and M. C. Whitlock. 2000. Beyond the average: The evolutionary importance of epistasis and the variability of epistatic effects.  In Wolf, J, E. D. Brodie III, and M. J. Wade, (eds.) Epistasis and the Evolutionary Process. Oxford Press, Oxford.

Whitlock, M. C., P. K. Ingvarsson, and T. Hatfield. 2000. Local drift load and the heterosis of interconnected populations. Heredity 84:452-457.

Ingvarsson, P. K., and M. C. Whitlock.  2000. Heterosis increases the effective migration rate. Proceedings of the Royal Society 267: 1321-1326.

Whitlock, M. C., and P. C. Phillips. 2000. The exquisite corpse: a shifting view of the shifting balance. Trends in Evolution and Ecology 15:347-348.

Whitlock, M. C., and D. Bourguet. 2000. Factors affecting the genetic load in Drosophila: Synergistic epistasis and correlations among fitness components. Evolution 54: 1654–1660.

Whitlock, M. C. 2000. Fixation of new alleles and the extinction of small populations: Drift load, beneficial alleles, and sexual selection. Evolution 54: 1855–1861.

Whitlock, M. C.  2001. Dispersal and the genetic properties of metapopulations. Pp. 273-282 in Clobert, J., and E. Danchin, (eds.) Dispersal. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Rundle, H. D., and M. C. Whitlock. 2001. A genetic interpretation of ecological isolation. Evolution 55: 198–201.

Whitlock, M. C. 2001. Effective population size. Encyclopedia of the Human Genome. Nature Publishing Group, London.

Whitlock, M. C. 2001. Genetic drift. Encyclopedia of Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Whitlock, M. C. 2001. Inbreeding. Encyclopedia of Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Whitlock, M. C., and Y. Michalakis. 2001. Metapopulations. Encyclopedia of Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Whitlock, M. C. 2001. Shifting balance. Encyclopedia of Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Phillips, P. C., M. C. Whitlock, and K. Fowler. 2001. The shape of the genetic covariance matrix changes with inbreeding. Genetics. 158: 1137-1145.

Ives, A. R., and M. C. Whitlock. 2002. Perspective: On inbreeding and metapopulations. Science 295: 454-455.

Whitlock, M. C. 2002. Selection, load, and inbreeding depression in a large metapopulation. Genetics. 160: 1191-1202.

Fowler, K., and M. C. Whitlock. 2002. Environmental stress, inbreeding, and the nature of phenotypic and genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B. 269:677-683.

M. C. Whitlock, Phillips, P. C., and K. Fowler. 2002. Persistence of changes in the genetic covariance matrix after a bottleneck. Evolution 56:1968–1975.

Whitlock, M. C. 2003. Fixation probability and time in a metapopulation. Genetics. 164:767-779.

Wang, J., and M. C. Whitlock. 2003. Estimating effective population size and migration rates from genetic samples over space and time. Genetics 163: 429-446.

Whitlock, M. C. 2003. Selection and drift in metapopulations. In Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution of Metapopulations. Academic Press, San Diego.

Otto, S. P. and M. C. Whitlock. 2003. Fixation times and probabilities. Encyclopedia of the Human Genome. Nature Publishing Group, London.

Davis, B., and M. C. Whitlock. 2003. Genetic load. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. McMillan Reference Ltd., London.

Whitlock, M. C., C. K. Griswold, and A. D. Peters. 2003. The critical effective size of a population with deleterious and compensatory mutations. Annales Zoologici Fennici 40: 169–183.

Bourguet, D., J. Gair, M. Mattice, and M. C. Whitlock. 2003. Genetic recombination and adaptation to fluctuating environments: Selection for geotaxis in Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity 91:78-84.

Otto, S. P., and M. C. Whitlock. 2003. Problem solved. Science Next Wave. http://nextwave.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/ full/2003/03/12/1

Peters, A. D., D. L. Halligan, M. C. Whitlock,  and P. D. Keightley. 2003. Dominance and overdominance of mildly deleterious induced mutations for fitness traits in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics 165: 589-599.

J. A. G.M. de Visser, J. Hermisson, G. P. Wagner, L. W. Ancel, H. Bagheri, J. L. Blanchard, L. Chao, J. M. Cheverud, S. F. Elena, W. Fontana, G. Gibson, T. F. Hansen, D. Krakauer, R. C. Lewontin, C. Ofria, S. H. Rice, G. von Dassow, A. Wagner, and M. C. Whitlock. 2003. Perspective: Evolution and detection of genetic robustness. Evolution 57:1959-1972.

Griswold, C. K., and Whitlock, M. C. 2003.The genetics of adaptation: The roles of pleiotropy, stabilizing selection and drift in shaping the distribution of bidirectional fixed mutational effects. Genetics 165:2181-2192.

Whitlock, M. C., and R. Bürger. 2004. The good, the bad, and the ugly: Fixation of new mutations in small populations. In Ferriere, R., U. Dieckmann, and D. Couvet, (eds.) Evolutionary Conservation Biology: The Genetics of Rarity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Ballard, J. W. O., and M. C. Whitlock. 2004. The incomplete natural history of the mitochondria. Molecular Ecology. 13: 729-744.

Whitlock, M. C. 2005. Combining probability  from independent test: The weighted Z method is superior to Fisher's approach. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 18:1368-1373.

Whitlock, M. C.  and R. Gomulkiewicz.  2005. Probability of fixation in a heterogeneous environment.  Genetics 171: 1407-1417.

Currat, M. L. Excoffier, W. Maddison, S. P. Otto, N. Ray, M. C. Whitlock, S. Yeaman. 2006. Comment on “Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in Homo sapiens” and “Microcephalin, a gene regulating brain size, continues to evolve adaptively in humans.” Science 313 (5784): doi:10.1126/science.1122712 JUL 14 2006.

Dolgin, E. S., M. C. Whitlock, and A. F. Agrawal. 2006. Male Drosophila melanogaster have higher mating success when adapted to their thermal environment. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19: 1894-1900.

Whitlock, M. C., B. H. Davis, and S. Yeaman.  2007. The costs and benefits of resource sharing: reciprocity requires resource heterogeneity. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20: 1772–1782.

Guillaume, F., and M. C. Whitlock. 2007. Effects of migration on the genetic covariance matrix. Evolution 61: 2398--2409.

Whitlock, M. C. 2008. Founder effects. Encyclopedia of Islands. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Whitlock,  M. C. 2008. Evolutionary inference from QST. Molecular Ecology 17:1885–1896.

Davis, B. H., A. F. Y. Poon, and M. C. Whitlock. 2009. Compensatory mutations are repeatable and clustered within proteins. Proc. Roy. Soc., Series B, 276:1823-1827.

Whitlock, M. C.,  and A. F. Agrawal. 2009. Purging the genome with sexual selection: reducing mutation load through selection on males. Evolution 63:569–582.

MacLellan, K., M. C. Whitlock, and H. D. Rundle. 2009. Sexual selection via variable male search success. Biology Letters 5:795-797.

Whitlock, M. C., and F. Guillaume. 2009. Testing for spatially-divergent selection: Comparing QST to FST. Genetics 183: 1055–1063.

Otto, S. P., and M. C. Whitlock. 2009. The impact of epistatic selection on the genomic traces of selection. Molecular Ecology 18:4985–4987.

Whitlock, M. C., M. A. McPeek, M. D. Rausher, L. Rieseberg, and A. J. Moore. 2010. Data archiving. American Naturalist 175:145-146.

Correia, L., S. Yeaman, and M. C. Whitlock. 2010. Local adaptation does not always predict high mating success. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23: 875-878.

Agrawal, A. F. and M. C. Whitlock. 2010. Environmental duress and epistasis:  How does stress affect the strength of selection on new mutations? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25: 450-458.

Yeaman, S., Y. Chen, and Whitlock, M. C. 2010. No effect of environmental heterogeneity on the maintenance of genetic variation in wing shape in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution 64:3398-3408.

Agrawal, A. F., and M. C. Whitlock. 2011. Inferences about the distribution of dominance drawn from yeast gene knockout data. Genetics 187: 553 - 566.

Whitlock, M. C. 2011. G’ST and D do not replace FST. Molecular Ecology 20: 1083–1091.

Whitlock, M. C. 2011. Data archiving in ecology and evolution: Best Practices. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26: 61-65.

Yeaman, S. and M. C. Whitlock. 2011.The genetic architecture of adaptation under migration-selection balance. Evolution 65:1897-1911.

Piwowar, H. A., T. J. Vision, and M. C. Whitlock. 2011. Data archiving is a good investment. Nature 473:285.

Whitlock, M.C. and B. Davis. (July 2011) Genetic Load. In: eLS 2011, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester http://www.els.net/ [DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001787.pub2]

Whitlock, M.C., and K. J. Gilbert. 2012. QST in a hierarchically structured population. Molecular Ecology Resources 12:481-483.

Whitlock, M.C., and J. D. Van Dyken. 2012. Altruism in viscous populations revisited: Competition and altruism do not exactly cancel even in the island model. In press, Evolutionary Ecology Research.

Draghi, J. A., and M. C. Whitlock. 2012. Phenotypic plasticity facilitates mutational variance, genetic variance, and evolvability along the major axis of environmental variation. Evolution 66: 2891–2902.

Agrawal, A. F., and M. C. Whitlock. 2012. Mutation load:  The fitness of individuals in populations where deleterious alleles are abundant. In press, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics.

McClure, N. S., and M. C. Whitlock. 2012. Estimating the heritability of selfing with multilocus genotypes. Heredity 109:173-179.

Kawecki, T. J., R. E. Lenski, D. Ebert, B. Hollis, I. Olivieri, M. C. Whitlock. 2012. Experimental evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 27:547-560.

Kawecki, T. J., R. E. Lenski, D. Ebert, B. Hollis, I. Olivieri, M. C. Whitlock. 2012. The value of complementary approaches in evolutionary research: reply to Magalhães and Matos. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 27:650-651.

Whitlock, M. C. 2013. From DNA to Phenotypes, In Losos, J., D. Baum, D. Futuyma, H. Hoekstra, R. Lenski, A. Moore, C. L. Peichel, D. Schluter, and M. C. Whitlock, (Eds.) The Princeton Guide to Evolution. Princeton University Press; Princeton.

Aitken, S. N., and M. C. Whitlock. 2013. Assisted gene flow to facilitate local adaptation to climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. In press.